The Patterners studied the movements of the stars in an effort to prevent another Great Cataclysm.
The Patterners originated from a group of Cybertronians who, while under the surface of Cybertron attempted to discover the cause of the Great Cataclysm. Under the guidance of their leader Azimuth, they came to logically study the movements of stars. When they emerged onto the surface, they began to carve these patterns onto the surface of the planet itself. Eventually, the markings grew to cover the entire planet.
Rise of the Dark Spark
An ancient recording found in a deep underground vault on Cybertron mentioned the Patterners who argued with the Disciples of the Thirteen over the origins of the Dark Spark. One side believed it to be the Spark of Unicron whilst the other saw it as the ejected corruption from the Well of All Sparks. In the midst of these arguments, the Crystal Guardians took action and decided that it must remain hidden forever. Even then, its malign influence continued, as the apostate Guardian Jhiaxus nearly succeeded in a plan to use the Spark to enslave an army of his fellow Cybertronians (including the Patterner Kranix).