Cloning is a process of creating the exact or nearly duplicates of a Transformer. After the clones are created, they are given T-cogs to transform into their original's or different alt modes.
Shockwave cloned all sorts of things. During the Great War, he successfully cloned a group of Predacons, a long-extinct species of Transformer, from the CNA he found in fossilized remains.
The Harbinger contained a laboratory with five protoforms and all the information needed to achieve cloning. Starscream managed to find it, and immediately utilized its contents to create five Starscream clones.
MECH created Nemesis Prime, a non-sentient clone of Optimus Prime, from schematics of the Autobot leader's body and parts acquired from their autopsy of Breakdown, as well as Starscream's t-cog.
Shockwave later cloned Predaking, and brought him to Earth.
Subsequent experiments yielded more Predacon clones, but the lab was destroyed before they could develop into adulthood.
Following his return to Cybertron, Shockwave cloned Darksteel and Skylynx.
- It is possible that Cybertronian clones possess a portion of the original's consciousness.